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Azerbaijan - Open Map
Introduction | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Communication | Transportation | Military

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Economy

Economy - overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or Georgia, the other Caucasian states. It resembles the Central Asian states in its majority Muslim population, high structural unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy's most prominent products are oil, cotton, and natural gas. Production from the Caspian oil field declined through 1997 but registered an increase in 1998-99. Negotiation of 19 production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to oil field development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. An obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building up with Turkey, Iran, UAE, and the nations of Europe. Growth in 2000 should match growth in 1999. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices and the location of new pipelines in the region.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $14 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,770 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 22%
industry: 18%
services: 60% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 60% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -6.8% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 2.9 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 15%, services 53% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $565 million
expenditures: $682 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 18.062 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 90.98%
hydro: 9.02%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 15.508 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 1.2 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports: $885 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and gas 70%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners: Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Italy, Iran

Imports: $1.62 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners: Turkey, Russia, Ukraine, UAE, Iran

Debt - external: $684 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $113 million (1996)

Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopiks

Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - 4,342 (October 1999), 4,373 (1999), 3,869 (1998), 3,985.38 (1997), 4,301.26 (1996), 4,413.54 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year



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